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Number of VictimsAccording to the sources, between 10 and 30 thousand. Damage to propoertyThe 20000 existing homes, only 3000 could be used after the earthquake.Beside human and material losses, the earthquake had serious consequences: social, religious, moral, philosophical, political and urban.
Political, urban implications / social, religious, philosophical and moral consequences
DOCUMENTSImpact and effects
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Reconstruction PlansFollowing the 1755 earthquake, Manuel da Maia, chief engineer of the kingdom, presents on December 4, of 1755 the 1st part of a treaty which proposes hypotheses for the reconstruction of the city. Three teams of architects and military engineers were formed, being headed by captains Sebastian Elias Poppe, Eugénio dos Santos and the helper Gualter da Fonseca. At these teams were asked to undertake projects of reconstruction, with the guiding principle correct and improve the city, taking into account the safety of the buildings, the streets and the hygiene of housing.
Marquês de PombalIn political terms, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better Known by "Marquês de Pombal"m saw his influence power increase.In urban terms the Marquis of Pombal was the main protagonist, worker reconstruction of Lisbon.Came the innovative (for the time) construction technique for seismic prevention knowed as "Pigeon Cage", developed in the reconstruction of downtown.
Story Timeline/ The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, Description of facts: an approach… before, on time, after
The river and the sea retreated leaving uncovered a large extension of feet of silt that their funds would come back moments later to be submerged by giant waves that move in a flow and ebb blasted riparian zones, shattering the boats against the shore and invading the streets of the downtown area of Lisbon.
Engraving representing one of the oldest panoramic city of Lisbon in the sixteenth century, inserted in the work of George Braunio Civitatis Orbis Terrarum ..., Amsterdam, 1598, vol. V. At the top left shows the weapons Nationals, right arms of Lisbon... In this overview, the high density of the urban centers in front of the Tagus, occupying the hills of Grace, rock of France, St. Anne and the castle hill of S. Jorge, where the lines run from wall Around Fernandina (1373-1375) that define the urban perimeter of the city. During the designated period of Discoveries, no more than 150 years, the population increased a lot, it caused the disappearance by merger of houses, much of the old fence Fernandina, built to defend the city in the last quarter of the fourteenth century (from 1373 to 1375).
AFTER
the day after
The waves of a violent tsunami generated during the earthquake
Considering the main causes of the ruin of buildings, in addition to the fire, "... the land that moved vertically, sometimes leaned across and hum. Anyway movements were so opposite, that the walls thicker or stronger easily were separated and fall 'and, as an important factor,and cause of the ruins, was the poor construction of houses and the nature of the ground upon which rests Lisbon...
On November 1, of 1755, when the city celebrated the day of All Saints, about 9:40, one morning too hot for the season (14th c), the earth begins to tremble under impulses that are felt vertically inside abroad, and the balance from North to South with a duration of about seven minutes interrupted by two brief moments. The shaking was so violent that the houses immediately began splitting and crumbling buried thousands in the rubble of houses and temples that were filled due to religious date. At the same time opened up cracks in the streets.
years after
ruins of Lisbon caused by the earthquake and fire
9:40
12:00
After the great earthquake of 1755, the urban area of Lisbon, will be deeply and permanently changed. The devastation caused by the disaster promotes the need for rapid reconstruction, seeking the correction and improvement of the City. The labyrinthine layout of the city before the quake, gives place, to a orthogonal plan, centered between two large squares, the Palace Square, and Rossio, establishing between them a path of rational parallel and perpendicular streets. In this "Downtown" of geometric plant, buildings will undergo a rigid typology. All fronts are identical, differing only in maximum height and number of floors, due to meet in ways considered major or minor.
BEFORE
after the earthquake
ON TIME
The lamps and candles in the churches must have originated various fires that soon erupted throughout downtown of Lisbon, which came to become raging fire that raged for six days. Sparked fires for everywhere and the sun disappeared amidst the dust of ruins, ash and smoke. 10,000 houses and a lot of buildings collapsed.
Rapid Reconstruction
10,000 houses and many buildings collapsed, including the Royal Palace of Ribeira and the Opera House, which had been built recently, the castle of S. Jorge, convents, palaces, schools, hospitals and artistic and literary estate which would be hopelessly lost in the ashes of the library Palace of Ribeira, enriched by King João V, is an example. Many of the fires were perpetrated by bandits who took advantage of the panic and abandoned houses for plunder...
Split engraving depicting the effects of 1755 Lisbon earthquake..
Fires broke out everywhere, the city and the sun disappeared amidst the ruins of dust, ash and smoke
Lisbon before the 1755 earthquake.
10:00
Sequentially follows the narration of the event, seeing the city, now in ruins, revealing the true scale of the disaster
Project Storyplace: Lisbon 1755 Earthquake Moisés CoelhoWebdesigner and Multimedia producerDigital Media Phd fellow, UT Austin | Portugal program, FCT Scholarship Developement Software toolsAdobe Phostoshop CS6Adobe Illustrator CS6Adobe DreamWeaver CS6TumultHype 1.6.1 Visualization preferences / optimisedSafari 6.0.2 or higher (Mac Os 10.7.5)Mobile Safari 6.0.1 (iPad Os 6.1)Chrome 24.0.1312.57
ABOUTThe Project
Story Timeline/ Lisbon before the 1755 earthquake
Story Timeline/ The effects of Lisbon earthquake
Story Timeline/ A violent tsunami generated during the earthquake
Story Timeline/ Fires broke out everywhere, the city and the sun disappeared
Story Timeline/ The city, now in ruins, revealing the true scale of the disaster
Story Timeline/Ruins of Lisbon caused by the earthquake and fire
Story Timeline/Rapid Reconstruction
Curso Livre de Conteúdos e Interfaces para Publicações Digitais | estóriasdigitais.comDepartment of Communication - Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, New University of Lisbon Faculty and Guests Luís Frias (coordination)Communication DesignerDigital Media Phd fellow, UT Austin | Portugal program, FCT Scholarship Cláudia PernencarDesigner, Lecturer and Researcher, IADEDigital Media Phd fellow, UT Austin | Portugal program, FCT Scholarship Pedro MonteiroDigital Art Coordinator at Impresa Publishing Rui Avelans CoelhoDesigner MultimediaDigital Media Phd fellow, UT Austin | Portugal program, FCT Scholarship Project Storyplace: Lisbon 1755 Earthquake Moisés CoelhoWebdesigner and Multimedia producerDigital Media Phd fellow, UT Austin | Portugal program, FCT Scholarship
CREDITS Author and context